- The Mass Psychology of Fascism : Third Edition - herzterfsaddromtigh.ga
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Why do people fall for racist stereotypes by the dozen?
The Mass Psychology of Fascism : Third Edition - herzterfsaddromtigh.ga
Reich also asked himself this question in His answers are based on the way children were educated in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic. The anger created by oppressive education, which must not be directed against the educators, accumulates and thus turns a healthy willingness to aggression into a willingness to destroy. The person is looking for spare valves and scapegoats: The authoritarian character with its hump-up and kick-down is complete.
In Germany around this was more true for Adolf Hitler than for anyone else. Since the fascist movement owes its success largely to psychological constellations that have been produced for generations, the confrontation with the capitalist economic order is not enough to erradicate fascism. Ultimately, it is patriarchy and its authoritarian-emotionally suppressive socialisation that must be combated. But does what Reich described back then still apply today?
To what extent do we live under similar circumstances, measured by the factors that according to Reich were jointly responsible for right-wing developments — destructiveness generating churches and small families, sexual repression, patriarchy, capitalism? In my brief communications on this I will confine myself to Germany, but I assume that the same applies to the situation in other countries as well.
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However, developments in Spain and Portugal show that there are already significant differences in Europe, at least in terms of the political impact. Perhaps we could go into that in more detail in our discussion afterwards. Now, first, the role of the — German — churches. Today, they influence political trends much less than years ago. And not only in the sense of charity and peacekeeping.
Physical punishment, psychological injury and other degrading measures are inadmissible. Nevertheless, compared to the first half of the 20th century, the extent of open sexual repression in Germany is lower.
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But even a sexuality permanently marketed through advertising, the porn industry and prostitution are diametrically opposed to a sex life that can actually be called free or healthy. In this study, Germany performed worse than the average of European countries. Patriarchal traits also still exist in Germany.
It is so clear that we live in a capitalist system that I will not go into it here. Reich has repeatedly pointed out that healthy psychosocial conditions cannot be established in class societies. Alienated work, exploitation, unjust distribution of money, possessions and life-forming possibilities as well as permanent subordination and dependence in the sphere of work lead to a deepening of mental deformations formed in childhood.
Neoliberalism, which is itself pronouncedly right-wing, is exacerbating all this at the moment. This is also demonstrated by the fact that at least one third of the EU population aged between 18 and 65 — an average of 83 million people — are affected by those mental health problems, according to long-term studies, to the list of which the official disease catalogues such as ICD 10 are limited, above all depressive and anxiety disorders.
Almost every second person affected received more than one such diagnosis.
Sociological surveys show just how ill our society is in the latter sense. At the populist extreme right-wing AfD-party, by far the largest proportion of this potential was concentrated: On average, a quarter of their voters had extreme right-wing attitudes.
Actually, Germans are superior to other peoples by nature. As in nature, the strongest should always prevail in society. The Federal Republic of Germany is alienated to a dangerous degree by the many foreigners. The Jews work more than other people with evil tricks to achieve what they want. There is valuable and worthless life. The crimes of National Socialism have been exaggerated in history.
In , there were up to 22 million Germans thinking like this. And: An even higher number stand for other xenophobic positions. Four-fifths of us say that.
These attitudes also run to varying degrees through the electoral groups of all parties. However, the hostility towards homosexuals — almost a right-wing tradition — is once again not bound to individual parties. To reject AfD is therefore by no means identical with not carrying a psychic potential within oneself, to which right-wing movements can fall back.
It is therefore about a disturbance of society as a whole — which does not end at national or party borders. It would therefore be naive to see right-wing groups, movements or parties as representatives of minorities. They represent traditional psychosocial structures that are widespread far beyond the circle of their members and voters. Similar to an epidemic, these symptoms can spread rapidly, for example as a result of economic crises. In the s, the Germans, who were previously considered to be of high cultural standing, made the case.
Prohibitions of right-wing parties can therefore never get to the root of the evil: The mass destruction only looks for new forms and names. The fact that four-fifths of Germans reject the generous processing of asylum applications also means that only a fifth see it differently. That alone is a clear minority. It can therefore be assumed that the number of those who are actually free from all prejudices is extremely small. And, I would like to add: if you fight these institutions. Authoritarian emotionally suppressive socialization is not a sufficient condition for fascistic degenerations, but a necessary condition for it.
This is probably the most important condition for the emergence of destructive social systems. If we could ensure that this kind of socialisation no longer takes place, these systems would no longer exist either. Mentally healthy people do not want and do not tolerate oppression, especially when it is carried out as brutally as in fascism. No destructive social system without destructive people! The current right-wing trends in Germany, Europe and probably also in the USA can be summarized as follows: The increasingly aggressive neoliberal capitalism is tearing down the already thin walls behind which the never-understood, let alone healed, mass destruction potential was lurking.
In Germany , the mental deformations left behind by the Empire, by fascism and war were never really dealt with after , and the old character characteristics in both East and West were only passed on to a lesser extent. On the contrary: Under the one-sided demonization of the German Democratic Republic and the equally one-sided idealization of the Federal Republic of Germany, reality sank even deeper. After the collapse of the socialist world system, the potential for destruction, largely tied up in the East-West system confrontation, may have been hindered by a Western democracy that seemed even more credible at the time, by the relatively high level of prosperity that many were relatively certain to achieve, and by hopes of positive developments.
But these hopes were disappointed. Since the danger of war has not decreased, but increased. In the second part, the cultural soil of Europe which provided the growth and sprawl consisting of political thinkers, social theorists, writers, scientific developments, scientists etc. The correlation between culture and fascism will be analyzed simultaneously; the influences of prominent figures and the formation and implementation of fascist ideas in interim period between First World War and Second World War.
Also Fascist regulations on Gender, Family and Education to form a new generation embroidered with the mindset of fascist ideas and realization of fascism itself through the institutions of family and religion by the suppression sexual drives and creating the authoritarianism with patriarch structure. Ultimately in the last chapter the genesis, rise and decline of political fascism will be revealed; the emergence of political fascism in Europe, the preconditions of fascism that ensured fascist leaders and movements take control of the nations and come into offices, the reasons of their success, and the main causes of their fall and entropy within the context of war and political reasons will be discussed.
Fascist Inclinations in Human Psychology A. Theories on Fascism Relating to Human Psychology 1.
According to Jung, these archetypes are the key elements in manipulation and regulation of deep emotional forces which are commonly called mana by him and these archetypes sustain their existence in a realm of Collective Subconscious. These archetypes are the driving forces behind the occults and rituals as a backbone for the rise of fascism in Europe creating a sense of belonging according to Jung such as: Fascism reached to the Shadow of the European soul that had been repressed over a century of materialism, liberalism, rationalism and cosmopolitanism.
It awakened the Berserker rage, the Spartan ethos, the martial spirit of the Roman Legions. Jung focuses on the fact that with the coming of Enlightenment Age and the sprawl of ideas such as rationalism, liberalism, individualism and materialism and the decline of monotheist religions, individual becomes decentralized while becoming isolated and detached from collectivity thus become more and more alien to his subconscious instincts and attached to the ideologies: Jung saw a harmonious relationship between Consciousness, the Personal Unconscious and the Collective Unconscious as an essential precondition for human beings to enjoy a creative psychic life and to form integral parts of a healthy society.
Jung, This mass psychology with a need and urge to devote itself to and lack of a centrum manifested itself with Fascism at the beginning of twentieth century. It is this "archicortex" which is responsible not only for the body's basic regulatory mechanisms but also for our instinctive, visceral i. The promise of Hitler to fight against the capitalistic power and protection of middle class, NSPD gained its momentum in the ballots and elections from the lower middle class and middle class strata of the society. To be more precise: If one penetrates through this second, perverse and antisocial layer, one arrives regularly at a third, the deepest layer, which we call the biological core.
In this deepest layer, man, under favorable social conditions, is an honest, industrious, cooperative animal capable of love and also of rational hatred.
In character- analytic work, one cannot penetrate to this deep, promising layer without first eliminating the false, sham-social surface. What makes it appearance when this cultivated mask falls away, however, is not natural sociality, but the perverse antisocial layer of the character Reich, Mass Psychology of Fascism, 6. Thus the suppression of biological core by social mask; the secondary layer causes the implicit inclinations of fascism in human nature; the biological core needs a way of expression in human life; whether in arts or sports if cannot it turns into destructive powers.
On the other hand, the contribution of ethics of liberalism to this suppression of biological core is indisputable. The mechanistic-mystical man of modern age is the man stuck between the mechanists and mystic thinking according to Reich.